Shidaalka Soomaaliya: Ma belaayaa laga dhaxli doonaa mise Barwaaqo?

 

Shidaalka Soomaaliya: Ma belaayaa laga dhaxli doonaa mise Barwaaqo?

Global Library September  28, 2017

Shidaalka Soomaaliya: Ma belayaa laga dhaxlidoonaa mise Barwaaqo? Hassan MudaneMaayo, 2017

“Abeesadu waxa ay cuntaa ciida, laakiinse caqli badnaan iyo taxadar inta ay ka qabto, wayu habeen seexataa si aysan oga dhammaan.”

Murti Soomaaliyeed

Horudhac

Maxay tahay casharada ay Soomaaliya ka baran karto musiibadii ku dhacday waddamada uu dhaqaalahooduku tiirsan yahay dhoofintashidaalka? Maxay tahay sababta loo doonayo soo saaristashidaalka Soomaaliya? Yaa ka faa’ideysan doona? Waa saddexdasu’aal oondoonayo in aan ku dhex falanqeeyo maqaalkan.Waxaan ku bilaabi doonaa taariikhda Soomaaliya oo kooban (Qeybta koowaad), kadibna waxaan si kooban u eegi doonaa musiibada laga filan karo waa haddii dhaqaalaha dalka uu noqdo mid ku tiirsan dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga sida dhoofinta shidaalka (Qeybta labaad), waxaa ku xigi doona sida looga baxsan karo dabinka ay dhigto isku haleynta ama ku tiirsanaanta dhoofinta shidaalka (Qeybta saddexaad), kadibna si kooban u eegi doonaa casharada laga baran karo (Qeybta afaraad), sidoo kale waxaan dulmar ku sameyn doonaa qasaaraha iyo faa’iidada la filan karo (Qeybta shanaad), waxaan saadaalin doonaa kuwa ka faa’ideysan kara soo saarista shidaalka Soomaaliya(Qeybta lixaad), ugu dambeyntiina, waxaan soo jeedin doonaa tallooyin ku saabsan sida looga hortagi karo musiibada ka imaan karta soo saarista shidaalka Soomaaliya (Qeybta todobaad). Keywords: khayraadkadabiiciga, Shidaalka Soomaaliya, Musiibo, Musuq-maasuq, Maamul xumo.
Taariikhda Soomaaliya oo kooban Soomaaliya waxa ay ka mid tahay waddamada dhaca dhanka bari ee qaaradda Afrika. Waxa ay xoriyadeeda heshay sanadkii 1960. Intii udhaxeysay 1969 ilaa 1990, waxaa soo maray maamul militarioo uu hoggaaminaayey Madaxweynihii hore ee Maxamed Siyaad Barre. Wixii ka dambeeyey sanadkii 1991 ilaa 2006,dalka waxaa ka jiray ciyaar siyaasaddeed ku dhisan qabiil oo ay dhex maraysay hoggaamiyo kooxeedyo kala duwan. Sanadkii 2006, ciyaar siyaasaddeedkii Soomaaliya waxa ay gashay marxalad kala guurah.Halgan siyaasaddeedkii ku dhisnaa qabiilka waxa ay isku beddashay mid ku dhisan diin.Wixii ka dambeeyey sanadkaas, ciyaar siyaasaddeedkii Soomaaliya waxaa ku soo biiray kooxdiimeedyo kala duwan, mid walbana li’di ku ah dowladii timaada.Sanadkii 2012, waxaa dalka ka dhacay doorasho madaxtinimo oo ay xilka ku kala wareegayeen madaxweynayaashii hore ee Soomaaliya Shiiq ShariifShiiq Axmed iyo Xasan Shiiq Maxamuud. Afar sano kadib, waxaa dhacday doorasho labaad oo ay xilka ku kala wareegeen Madaxweynii hore Xasan Shiiq Maxamuud iyo Madaxweyne Maxamed Cabdulaahi Farmaajo. Sikastaba, taariikhdaas dheer ee aan soo koobay, Soomaaliya waxa ay aheyd dal aan marnaba khayraadkiisa la taaban oo aan dibadda loo soo saarin.Bal aynu dib u yara milicsano taariikhda sahanka shidaalka Soomaaliya, oo ah mid soo billowday xilligii gumeysiga. Xilligii gumeystaha uu joogay dhulka Soomaalida ayaa waxaa jiray dhul-baarayaal Talyaani iyo Maraykanah, waxa ay summadeeyeynastaamaha shidaalka. (HIPS, 2014). Wixii ka dambeeyey kontomeeyadii, shirkaddo laga leeyahay dalka Talyaaniga iyo Maraykanka ayaaahaa kuwii billaabay in ay baaritaan ku sameeyaan shidaalka Soomaaliya. Shirkadda Eni (oomarkii hore loo yiqiin Agip) iyo shirkadda Sinclai ayay ahaayeen kuwii baaritaanka kusameeyey dhulka Soomaalida. Waxaa xigay baaritaano kale, oo ay sameeyeyn shirkaddaha kala ah: ConocoPhillips, Shell, Amoco, Total iyo Texaco. Markii ay meesha ka baxday dowladiidhexe ee Soomaaliya, 1991. Waxaa joogsaday howlihii sahminta shidaalka Soomaaliya. (HIPS, 2014).Haddaba, shidaalka ku kaydsan Soomaaliya waxaa lagu qiyaasaaku dhowaad 110 bilyan oo fuusto, sidoo kalena xeebaha Soomaaliya waxaa dhex yaala shidaal badan oo aan weli la qiyaasin inta uu la’eg yahay. Taasi Soomaalida waxa ay marna u noqon kartaa filasho wanaagsan marna musiibo. Hadba waxa ay ku xiran tahay sida loo maamuli doono hantida ka soo xaroota khayraadkaas.Shan iyo labaatan sano kaddib, dagaalkii sokeeye ee Soomaaaliya, waxaa dib u soo noolaatay hankii ay Soomaaliya ku doonaysayin ay ka mid noqoto waddamada dhoofiya shidaalka. Balse, su’aasha isweydiintamudan waxa ay tahay, ma la joogaa xilligii ay Soomaaliya soo saaran laheyd shidaalkeeda?
Musiibada Khayraadka Waddamada dhaca qaaradda Afrika, heykal-dhaqaaleedkooduinta badan waxa uu ku tiirsan yahay dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga sida dhoofinta shidaalka, saliidda, macdantaqeybaheeda kala duwan,dheemanka, dahabka, maarta, iwm. Kaliya maahan waddamada dhaca qaaradda Afrika, waxaa kaloo jira waddamo badan oo ka midadunida saddexaad oo dhaqaalahooduweli ku tiirsan yahay dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga. Sida Michael (1999) uu tilmaamay,“Afar meelood saddex meel ka mida waddamada dhaca saxarahaAfrika, saddex meelood laba meel ka mida waddamada dhaca laatiin Ameerika, bariga dhexe, waqooyiga Afrika waxa ay weli ku tiirsan yihiin dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga.”Haddii waddan uu leeyahay khayraad dabiici ahsida shidaal, sidoo kalena uu dibadda u dhoofiyokhayraadkiisadabiiciga, lacag badana ay ka soo gasho, sow maahanin dadkiisu ay ku noolaadan nolol ka baxsan xayndaabka saboolnimada. Sidaa cagsigeeda, inta badan dadkaku nool waddamada dhoofiya shidaalka waxa ay ku nool yihiin nolol saboolnimoiyo gaajobuuxisay. Sida Collier (2007) uu xusay, “Boqolkiiba 19%, dadka faqriga ah waxa ay ku nool yihiin waddamadauu dhaqaalahoodu ku tiirsanyahay[dhoofinta] khayraadka dabiiciga.” Bal isbarbardhig ku sameeyheerka ay gaarsiisan tahay noloshabulshada ku nool waddamada dhaqaalahooda uusan ku tiirsaneyndhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga sida Koonfurta Kuuriya, Jabaan, Talyaani, Taylaan, Malaysiya, Singabuur. Iyo bulshadaku nool waddamadauu dhaqaalahooduku tiirsan yahay dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga sida dhoofinta shidaalka, sida dalka Nayjeeriya, Venusweela, Jaad, Koonfurta Suudaan, Zaambiya, Koongo, Sira-liyoon,Angoola,iwm. Adiga oo ka fiirinaya inta ay la’egtahay heerka waxbarashada, horumarka dhaqaalaha, caafimaadka, boqolkiiba inta wax qori karta waxna akhrin karta, sanadkiiba lacagta uu qofka mushahar ahaan u helo. Natiijada aad heli karto waxa ay ku dul-wareeganaysaa farqigaweyn ee u dhaxeeyo nolosha labadaas bulsho.Sidoo kale,waxaad ogaanaysaa, sida ay wax noqon karaan haddii daluu ku qancoin dhaqaalahiisa uu noqdo mid ku tiirsankaliya dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga.Waxaa jira waddamo fara-kutiris ah oo ka baxsaday dabinka ay dhigto ku tiirsanaantadhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga, waxaaka mida: Sucuudiga, Kuweyt, Qadar, Baxreyn, Noorwey, Jili, Induniisiyaiyo Butuswaana.Inta badan lacagta soo gasho waddamadaas waxaay ka soo gashaa dhoofinta khayraadkadabiiciga sida dhoofinta shidaalka. Dadka ku nool waddamadaas, nolosha ay ku nool yihiinwaa heer sare. Maxaa ka caawiyey in ay ka baxsadaan dabinka?Wax kale ma jiro oo aan ka aheyn sida wacan oo ay u maamuleyn lacagta ka soo xarootadhoofinta khayraadkaas,iyo sida wanaagsan oo ay oga hortageyn musuq-maasuqa. Sidoo kale, waxaajira waddamo kale ooayaganadhoofiya khayraadka dabiicigasida shidaalka, balse bulshadoodu ay ku nooshahay nolol ku hareereysan faqri iyo gaajo. Haddaba maxaa u diiday in ay ku noolaadaan mid la mida tan ay ku nool yihiin bulshada waddamada khaliijka? Waxa kaliya eesharxi kara arrinkaas waa
musuq-maasuqa. Waxa biday in bulshadaasiay ku hoos noolaatonoloshaas faqriga ah waa musuq maasuqa baahsan oo ay sameeyeen madaxda hoggaamisa. Rejadii la filaayey oo aheyd,in noloshooda ay wax badan iska beddali doontohaddii ay soo saartaan shidaalka, balse rejadii waxa ay ku noqotay musiibo.Shaki kuma jiro in haddii dal uu dibada u soo saaro khayraadkiisadabiicigasida shidaal, ay u badan tahay in uuka mid noqdo waddamada ‘kireystakhayraadkooda dabiiciga,’kana kireysta dowladahalacagta leh ee reer galbeedka ama shirkadaha shidaalka ee gaarka loo leeyahay ee reer galbeedka. Dhoofinta uu dalkaasidhoofinayo khayraadkaasiisa, waxa ay hilmaamisaa xoog saaridaqeybaha kale ee ilaha dhaqaalaha sida: horumarinta warshadaha, dhoofinta dharka, cuntada, dalaga beeraha, tiknoolijiyada casirga, ganacsiga, iwm.Haddii dal uu galo jawigaas ama xaaladaas waxaa inta badanku dhaca ‘Cudurka Dhajka.’ Cudurkan waxa uu yimaada marka dal si kadis ah ku soo saarto khayraadkiisa dabiiciga sida shidaal, kadibna dhoofinta shidaalkaas uu lacag badan ka sameeyo, taasi oo sababta in uu si fudud ku hilmaamo horumarinta qeybaha kaleeeilaha dhaqaalaha.Ugu dambeyntiina, dalkaas waxa uu noqdaa mid aan dhaqaalehiisu isku dhafneen, kuna tiirsan daqliga ka soo gala dhoofinta shidaalka. Bulshada ku nool dal sidaas oo kaleu dhisan yahay dhaqaalehiisa, inta badan waxaay ka mid noqdaanbulshooyinkacaajiskabadan eeku nool lacagta bilaashka ah ee dowladaka soo gashodhoofinta shidaalka.Tusaale, bulshada ku nool waddamada khaliijka sida sucuudiga, kuweyt, qadar, intooda badan waa bulsho ku nool lacagta dowlada, manabixiyaan canshuur.Sikastaba, haddii Soomaaliya ay doonayso in ay cagta saarto waddadii gaarsiin laheyd ‘Musiibada Khayraadka’iyada oo ka mid noqonayso waddamada uu dhaqaalahooduku tiirsan yahay dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga sidaNayjeeriya, Zaambiya, Fenusweena, Koonfurta Suudaan, Jaad, Gaana, Sira-liyoon, Angoola, Koongo, Kaamiruun, iwm.Waa in ay diyaar u noqotaasidii ay u wajahi laheydMusiibada Khayraadka!Musiibada uu ka digayo maqaalkan waxa ay imaan kartaa,markii ay Soomaaliya dibadda u soo saarato khayraadkeedadabiiciga sida shidaalkaama macdanta yuuraaniyoomta, kaddibna ay heshiis kula gasho mid ka mida shirkadaha shidaalka ee reer galbeedka sida shirkadan ‘Soma Oil and Gas’ (Sanadkii 2013, shirkaddanwaxa ay heshiis ku saabsan sahmintashidaalka dhex yaalla xeebaha Soomaaliya lagashay dowladda federaalka Soomaaliya),waana shirkaddaxilligan lagu xanto sahminta shidaalkaSoomaaliya. Haddii mid ka mida qodobbada heshiiskaas uu noqdomid tilmaamaya in shirkadda ay maamusho ama qeyb weyn ku yeelan karto faa’iidada ka soo xaroota khayraadkaas, dowladduna ay daawade ka noqoto, dhaqaalaha waddankanauu noqdomid ku tiirsan,iskuna haleeyadhoofinta shidaalka, markaas ayay soo muuqan doontaa MUSIIBADA KHAYRAADKA! Mid ka mida waxyaabaha sababta u ah in ay dhacdo musiibadaas waxaa ka mida,qiima dulsaarandhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga sida shidaalka waxa ay inta
5badan ku xiran tahay is bed-beddalka sicirka dunida, sicirka dunidana waxaa maamula reer galbeedka. Marka ay rabaan ayay hoos u dhigaan marka ay rabaana kor ayay u qaadaan. Marka sicirka hoos u dhaco waa marka ay billaabanayso gilgilashada dhaqaalaha dalka. Haddaba, sidee looga hortagi karaamusiibadaas? Hadba waxa ay ku xiran tahay sida loo maamulo daqliga ka soo xarooda khayraadkaas, sidoo kalena in la abuuro dhaqaale isku dhafan oo aan kaliya la isku haleyn lacagta kirada ah ee ka imaanaysadhoofinta shidaalkaiyo helida dowladda xooggan oo ku dhisan maamul wanaag, taas oo kutimaada rabitaan shacab. Musiibadaaswaxa ay noqon kartaamid muuqataoo la arki karo, waa marka ay isbiirsadaan maamul xumo ku dhisan musuq-maasuq iyo marka dhoofinta khayraadkaas ay noqotoilaha kaliya ee daqliga dowlada.Haddii shacabku uu ku fashilmola socodka musuq-Maasuqa ku dhisan laaluushka oo ay inta badan sameeyaan madaxda dowladaha uu dhaqaalahoodu ku tiirsan yahay dhoofintashidaalka,waxa ay noqon kartaa barta ay ka billaabanaysomusiibada iyo maamul xumida ku’aadan sida loo mareyn karo lacagta ka soo xaroon doontadhoofintashidaalka Soomaaliya. Halista ugu weyn waxa ay soo muuqan karta marka Siyaasiyiinta Soomaalida, Maamul Goboleedyada, qaar ka mida Qabiillada Soomaalida uu dhex maro tartan loo galayo xaraashka iyo heshiisyada shidaalkaSoomaaliya, taas oo keeni karta in ay ku deg degaan heshiisyo ay la galaan shirkadaha shidaalka, iyada oo aan si fiican looga baaraan degin. Haddaba, habka ugu muhiimsanee looga hortagi karowaa in la abuuro jawi ku dhisan kalsooni iyo is aamminaad dhex mara Qabiillada Soomaaliyeed, Maamul Goboleedyadaiyo Dowladda Federaalka. Su’aasha isweydiinta mudan waxa ay tahay, haddii la soo saaro shidaalka Soomaaliya, maxay ka beddali kartaa nolosha bulshada Soomaaliyeed? Waxaa jirta aragti suuqa ku dhexjirta oo ay inta badan ku doodaan dadka aaminsan in la joogo xilligii ay Soomaaliya soo saaran laheyd shidaalkeeda.Aragtidaas waxa ay leedahay, haddii la soosaaro khayraadka Soomaaliya,waxa ay wax badan ka beddali doontaanolosha bulshada Soomaaliyeed. Waxa ayna yareen kartaa khilaafka Soomaalida. Balse, taasi sida loo yiri mise sida ay wax noqon doonaan! Runtii aragtidaas waxaan u arkaa in ay tahay aragti lagu marin habaabinayo bulshada Soomaaliyeed. Ku tiirsanaanta dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga sida dhoofinta shidaalka waxa aysabab u noqon kartaa in dalkauu gaari waayo horumar dhanka warshadaha. Collier (2007) waxa uu ku doodday, “dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga, iska daain ay wax kukordhiyaan dhaqaalaha waddanka, waxa ay qeyb ka qaadan karaancaqabadaha ka hor istaagi kara dalka in uu xaqiijiyo horumar dhaqaale, sida hurinta colaadda.”Sanadkii 2013i, qoraal ka soo baxay wasaaradda horumarinta caalamiga eedalka Ingiriiska, waxa ay ka digtay, soo saarista shidaalka Soomaaliya in ay sii hurin karto musuq-maasuqa iyo khilaafka Soomaalida. Sahminta shidaalka Soomaaliya waxa ay u badan tahay in ay kiciso xiisad siyaasaddeed, taas oo horseed u noqon kartadib usoo cusboonaanshaha colaaddaSoomaaliya. (HIPS, 2014).
Qasaarahaiyo Faa’iidada Shaki kuma jiro soo saarista shidaalka Soomaaliya in uu qaasarahiisu wato. Qasaarahala filan karo wax badan ayay noqon karaan, balse maqaalkan kaliya waxa uu tilmaamayaa saddex ka mida qasaaraha la filan karo, waxaana ka mida: •Inmusuq-maasuqa kordho.

•In ay meesha ka baxdo nidaamka dimuqoraadiyada Soomaaliya.

•Hurinta colaadda sokeeyo.Kaliya maahan in loo fahmo,

haddii dal uu soo saarto khayraadkiisa dabiiciga sida shidaalin ay ku noqonayso musiibo.Haddii si fiican loo maamulo,laganadhowro musuq-maasuq, wax isdabamarin, tuugnimo, laaluush qaadasho;dakhliga ka soo xaroon doonadhoofinta shidaalka Soomaaliya. Waasuurtagal in ay soo saarto faa’iido badan, taas oo dalka ku hagtawaddadii barwaaqada, Sidoo kalenaay wax badan ka beddasho noloshada bulshada Soomaaliyeed.Yaa ka faa’ideysan doona?Haddii ay dhacdo in Soomaaliya laga helo khayraad dabiici ah sida shidaal ama Yuuraaniyoom kaddibna dibada loo soo saaro. Waxaan ku dooddayaa, in khayraadkaasi ay afka u dhigan doonaan,oo ay ka faa’iideysan laba koox oo kala ah:

•Siyaasiyiinta Soomaalida.

•Shirkadaha shidaalka ee reer galbeedka.Sikastaba, soo saarista shidaalka Soomaaliya laba waddo mid un bay u jiheyn kartaa: Mid gaarsiin kartaa musiibo iyo dib u dhaciyo mid gaarsiin karta barwaaqo iyo horumar.TallooyinTalooyinka aan doonayo in aan usoojeediyo siyaasiyiinta Soomaaliyagaar ahaan kuwa ay talada ka go’do waxaa ka mida:

❖In dowladda federaalka Soomaaliya ay dib u eegis iyo dib u habeynbaku sameyso mugdiga dhanka sharciga ah ee ku’aadan sida loo qeybsan karo khayraadka Soomaaliya,yeeytahay cidda xaqa u leh in ay heshiis la gasho shirkaddaha shidaalka, sidoo kalena yaa looga fadhiyaa fullinta heshiiskaas.

❖In la sameeyo daraasad ku saabsandalka Butuswaana oo ah dal lagu naanayso ‘Mucjisada Afrika’sidii ay ogabaxsadeyndabinka musiibada(Ku tiirsanaanta dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga), iyo sidiiay u maamuleyn dhaqaalahii kagasoo xarooday dhoofinta khayraadkaas.

❖In lagu dhaqmo xikmadii aheyd ‘Intaadan fallinka fiirso,’ lanasameeyo qiimeyn ku’aadan sida ay mustaqbalka wax noqon karaan, ka hor soo saarista shidaalka Soomaaliya; inta aadan guurin ayaa sahan la dirsadaa.

❖In la dhisolana xoojiyo hey’ad madax bannaanoo la dagaalanta, ka hortagta, lana socota musuq-maasuqa.

❖In la xoojiyo hey’adahacanshuur uruurinta si daqliga dowladda uu u noqdo mid ka soo xaroodacanshuurta dadweynaha balse uusan noqon mid isku haleeya, kuna tiirsan kaliya dhoofinta khayraadka dabiiciga.

❖In dowladda federaalka Soomaaliya ay furto doodcilmiyeedyoku saabsan shidaalka Soomaaliya, taas oo ay ka qeyb galayaan qeybaha kala duwan ee bulshda rayidka. ❖In dowladda federaalka Soomaaliya ay abuurto heykal-dhaqaale oo isku dhafan,balse aysan isku haleynkaliya daqliga ka soo gali doonadhoofinta shidaalka.

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Somalia: Political leaders, their entourage and the depletion of the country’s resources.

imageGlobal Policy Journal – Sunday October 25, 2015 – Shortly before taking office, former US Secretary of State, Colin Powell, received a letter from George Kennan, Dean of the diplomatic corps, advising him against following the tradition of his predecessors whom he claimed had “seriously misused and distorted” the office of Secretary of State through their travel. He argued that travelling should be done by “lower-level officials, especially ambassadors, while the Secretary remains in Washington”. Some of the foreign travels of Somali President, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud and his predecessor, Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, have come under increased scrutiny as their frequent flying has come to been seen as costly tourism and, with the exception of a few trips, unnecessary.
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Ramadan may be a month of fasting and prayer.

imageRamadan may be a month of fasting and prayer, but it is also a month of terror and violence.

The article ‘was published on Diplomatic History Journal 

Global Policy Journal – Ramadan is the most important month in the Muslim calendar. The Qu’ran descended from the heavens on the night called Laylat-al-Qadr (Night of Destiny) towards the end of the month of Ramadan and according to the Qu’ran, that night is “better than a thousand months.” The entire month is intended to be a time for drawing closer to Allah, repenting from sin, and refraining from partaking in earthly pleasures such as eating, drinking and smoking.It is a time for acts of kindness, for helping the poor, visiting relatives and improving inter-personal relationships. Read the rest of this entry

Migranti, Profughi, Clandestini: il valore delle parole

imageJournalist’s Resource –Quello che colpisce immediatamente degli immigrati clandestini è la loro giovane età: sono tutti giovani, fra loro non ci sono anziani. Ne hanno intervistato uno al TG qualche giorno fa, sulla scogliera di Ventimiglia, un giovanotto colto e misurato che parlava un inglese fluente, armeggiava sapientemente con il portatile e che manifestava un manierato pessimismo per la propria condizione
(I am here for my tomorrow…) dovendo ammettere che la meta del suo viaggio, la Francia, e’ al momento impossibile. Manierato, quindi, il suo pessimismo.
Perchè?
Perchè a prescindere che la Francia fosse effettivamente il suo reale punto di approdo e non invece l’alibi per giustificare come temporanea e involontaria una presenza in Italia invece voluta e definitiva, il suo pessimismo è fuori luogo; raggiunta l’Italia, collocato in un centro di accoglienza, per lui il futuro è già cominciato in quanto il contesto politico giudiziario e sociale che lo amministra come profugo ha già approntato un sistema di ospitalità istituzionale, dovuta in quanto di fonte normativa legale.
Se quindi si cerca di trovare uno slogan, un concetto che in sè riepiloghi la ratio di questo devastante flusso migratorio clandestino, il concetto più pertinente è quello di “cuccagna”, vale a dire che arrivati qui, il problema è risolto perchè a risolverlo è chiamato de iure un apparato statale che il governo e la politica parlamentare del consenso e della retorica solidaristica ha voluto essere così.

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Misunderstanding Growth in Africa: how economists get it wrong

Global Policy Journal – For the past two decades, mainstream economists who study African economic growth have been trying to explain something that never happened. Economists have focused almost exclusively on one question: Why has economic growth failed in Africa?

This is not only an academic past time, the question has made its way into popular discourse too. Most famously, in 2000, the front page of The Economist depicted Africa as a hopeless continent that was unable to experience economic growth and development. In a special report on the continent, the magazine asked “Does Africa have some inherent character flaw that keeps it backward and incapable of development?”

Yet only ten years later, the same publication had a completely different front-page report about Africa as a hopeful continent that was on the rise. How could they have got it so wrong the first time?

In 2000, Johannesburg’s weekly business magazine Financial Mail pointed out that, in 1997, just three years earlier, The Economist had written that “sub-Saharan Africa is in better shape than it has been for a generation.” The Financial Mail asked: “Do the editors of The Economist have a character flaw that makes them incapable of consistent judgment?” Read the rest of this entry

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is addressing a joint meeting of Congress;

Moment Research & Consultancy “Il gladiatore va al Congresso”

Churchill aveva molto sense of humour. Bibi Netanyahu, come ci ha raccontato Giulio Meotti, ne è totalmente sprovvisto. Ma ha il dono della parola chirurgica, e con il discorso di ieri al Congresso degli Stati Uniti (il terzo in ordine di tempo, privilegio condiviso con il solo Churchill) ha fatto sanguinare i sognatori e i politicanti, che spesso sono la stessa persona, intenti a legittimare la via al nucleare degli ayatollah iraniani per un risultato da vendere come la famosa “peace in our time” promessa dopo la conferenza di Monaco da Chamberlain. Sono grato a Obama e al Congresso, a tutto il popolo americano e alle sue istituzioni, per quanto hanno fatto e fanno per sostenere Israele e con Israele un assetto del mondo sottratto ai lupi rapaci del radicalismo islamico, ha esordito il primo ministro. Read the rest of this entry

Africa tops the best food in the world league

Africa tops the best food in the world league

Africa tops the best food in the world league

Global Policy Journal – If you said the words “Africa” and “food” and asked most people in the western world what the connection was, I would bet my Sunday lunch that many people would say: “None. They don’t have any. They’re all starving.”

So the news in The Lancet this week that Africans have the best diets in the world is wonderful and spectacularly ironic. According to the researchers, out of the top ten best national diets in the world only one is not African, Israel. And not a single African country is in the bottom ten. However, there are four European countries at the bottom of the table. Is there any other development in the world where Africans sweep the board? A few years ago Africans were reported to be the most contented and optimistic people in the world. I hope that is still true. Read the rest of this entry

The stratified diasporas of Somalians

imageThe stratified diasporas of Somalians

Migrants face uncertainty and, to survive, they forge identities through business and religion.

Mogadishu Digital Journal | SomaliaObservatory | February 14, 2015 – Somali migrants constitute a diaspora whose members have, through transnational mobility, created a Somali diasporic space on different continents. This mobility is not new, especially for sailors employed in sea ports of the British Empire. Small Somali communities can be found in port cities as far apart as Perth and New York.

By the end of the 19th century, the biggest Somali presence outside Africa was in Britain, along the Welsh Coast — these were seamen of the British Merchant Navy. During the 1930s, Somali leaders in Britain served as political intermediaries for Kenyan Somalis trying to uplift their racial status in colonial Kenya. Read the rest of this entry

Ambassador Nicholas Kay Digresses from the pivotal reality in Somali

imageUN Special Representative to Somalia Ambassador Nicholas kay

Wednesday, January 28, 2015 – Global Policy Journal – Whether they are labeled pessimists or realists/nationalists, many Somali intellectuals and politicians of different extractions are expressing profound doubts about the meaning and future of Somali unity and territorial integrity due to the relentless foreign driven fragmentation of Somalia along clan enclaves and improperly organized talks between Somaliland and Somalia. The exclusion of Somaliland from the UN Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) signals division. The consensus is that the current political trend constitutes serious obstacle to the realization of internal political cohesion, reliable peace and security rooted in a culture of rule of law, and national free and fair political election in 2016 in Somalia. Read the rest of this entry

Open letter to the Prime Minster of Somalia

imageOpen letter to the Prime Minster of Somalia

Sunday, January 25, 2015

Mr. Prime Minister,

My personal greetings to you. May ALLAH, grant you wisdom as you function in your new position as Prime Minister and at a personal level.
(A) In your role as Prime Minister, there are normally two perspectivesthat are likely to confront you. The first perspective is from the inside looking outward, the other is from the outside looking inward. Wisdom requires that you evaluate both perspectives.

Fate has cast you in the role of Prime Minister and it is expected that by now, you would have developed an internal perspective. This perspective requires that you balance your personal views and values with the political obstacles and possibilities facing a Prime Minister. In forging this balance, you need to realize that if one side outweighs the other, then balance is not achieved. Somalia cannot afford the dubious luxury of having a Prime Minister who cannot achieve the desired balance required to achieve political respect and credibility particularly at this delicate period of Somalia’s history. Your nomination and subsequent approval as Prime Minister signaled the need forge compromise in the interest of national unity. It also signals the need for a Prime Minister with the capacity and courage to defend his right to choose his Cabinet after adhering to proper consultative protocols. If this position is untenable and uncomfortable for you, it is my personal view that you owe the President and Parliament your resignation. Read the rest of this entry